# Dark Matters: WIMP and Beyond

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Dark Matters:

WIMP and Beyond Shufang Su U. of ArizonaSI 2005

Outline Brief introduction of standard cosmology

Dark matter evidence

New physics and dark matter

WIMP

candidates: neutralino LSP in MSSM, lightest KK particle in UED

direct/indirect DM searches, collider studies

synergy between cosmology and particle physics

superWIMP

Standard cosmology Einstein equations Metrics Equations of statea(t): scale factork: -1, 0, 1 for open, flat, close universe

Standard cosmology Friedmann equationHubble parametercritical density

We are living through a revolution in our understanding of the Universe on the largest scales

For the first time in history, we have a complete picture of the Universe

DM evidence: rotation curves Rotation curves of galaxies and galactic clustersConstrain mi=i/c

Dark matter evidence: supernovae SupernovaeConstrain m-

Dark matter evidence: CMB Cosmic Microwave BackgroundConstrain +mthennow

Remarkable agreement Remarkable precision (~10%)Synthesis =73% 4%=23% 4%=3% 0.5% 0.5%

Additional evidence

Dark matter vs. dark energy We know how much, but no idea what it is.

Dark matterDark energyNo known particles contributeAll known particles contributeProbably tied to mweak 100 GeVProbably tied to mPlanck 1019 GeVSeveral compelling solutions No compelling solutions

Five stationSeven stationDark EnergyDark MatterOrdinary matter

Standard Model No good candidates for CDM in SMNot for cosmology observations Dark Matter Cosmology constant Baryon asymmetry SM is a very successful theoretical framework describes all experimental observations to date Gravitational interacting Stable Non-baryonic Neutral Cold (massive) Correct density

H

uctdsb

ee

W,Zg

Quarks

Leptons

Gauge boson(force carrier)

Higgs

New physics beyond SM DM problem provide precise, unambiguous evidence for new physicsIndependent motivation for new physics in particle physics New physics to protect electroweak scale

new symmetry: supersymmetry new space dimension: extra-dimension

Dark matter in new physics Dark Matter: new stable particlein many theories, dark matter is easier to explain than no dark matter

Dark matter candidates mass and interaction strengths span many, many orders of magnitudeMany ideas of DM candidates:

WIMP superWIMPs primodial black holes axions warm gravitinos Q balls wimpzillas self-interacting particles self-annihilating particles fuzzy dark matter branons appear in particle physics models motivated independently by attempts to solve Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

relic density are determined by mpl and mweak

naturally around the observed value no need to introduce and adjust new energy scale

Dark matter freeze out Freeze out, n/s constWIMP early time H n neq

late time H (n/s)today (n/s)decoupling at freeze-out H TF m/25Approximately, relic / 1/hvi=n hvi v.s. HUniverse cools: n=nEQe-m/T Boltzmann equationThermal equilibrium $ ff

Relic density calculations Boltzmann equationnumber density at thermal equilibriumentropy

Relic density calculations Define Long before freeze-out Long after freeze-out

Relic density calculations Approximately, relic density today ( ) g*: number of relativistic degrees of freedom at the time of freeze outxF: freeze out temperatureg: degrees of freedom for dark matter Xc: O(1) constant determined by matching the late-time and early-time solutionsOr, order of magnitude estimation: Resonance enhancement, coannihilation

WIMP dark matter WIMP: Weak Interacting Massive Particle mWIMP mweak an weak2 mweak-2 h2 0.3 naturally around the observed value

SM particle superpartner Spin differ by 1/2 Correct density Non-baryonic Neutral Coldm > 45 GeV Stable gravitational interactingweak interactionSupersymmetry breaking, m TeV Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM)

(Hu+,Hu0) , (Hd0, Hd-)

uctdsb

ee

B0W,W0g

Squarks

sleptons

Gauginos

Higgsino

Neutralino LSP as DM new weak scale particle constraints discrete symmetry

stability

dark matter candidate

Sneutrino Dark Matter rapid annihilation, hAvi largeSneutrino CDM in MSSM is disfavored

Neutralino relic density CMSSM0.1 h2 0.3 (pre-WMAP) t-channel(dominate) s-channelimportant near pole m mZ,H/2 Cosmology excludes much of the parameter space

too big

cosmology focuses attention on particular regions

just right

Bulk region and coannihilation regionbulkco-annihilation muon g-2 th-exp=(26 16) 10-10 CMSSM0.1 h2 0.3 0.094 h2 0.129 Ellis et. al. (2003)

Focus Point Region~Feng et. al. (2000)

conventional wisdom focus pointnaturalness m0, M1/2, || TeVm0 a few TeV , naturalm0 term negligiblem0 term not negligible|| M1|| M1DM Bino-like: 10 B0DM Bino-Higgsino mixture

Funnel-Like RegionLarge tan : m mA,H/2Ellis et. al. (2003)

Extra dimension 4DUniversal extra dimension:

All SM particles live in the (flat) bulk

unwanted states: orbifoldAppelquist, cheng and Dobrescu (2000)

Universal Extra Dimension new weak scale particle constraints

discrete symmetry

stability

dark matter candidate

UED: LKP Dark Matter Servant, Tait (2002)

Dark matter detection / 1/h iNot overclose universeEfficient annihilation thenDM annihilation

Direct detection detectorMeasure nuclear recoil energy(ionization, photo)

Direct detection

Current SensitivityNear FutureFutureTheoretical PredictionsBaer, Balazs, Belyaev, OFarrill (2003)Direct detection: future B(1) LKP DM

Indirect detectiondetectorA / nDM2

Dark matter density in the sun, capture rate

MSSMIndirect detection: neutrinoUEDicecubeHooper and Wang (2003)Hooper and Krib (2002)

Dark Matter annihilates in galactic center to photons , a place some particles which are detected by GLAST, HESS. an experiment

recipeDark matter density in the center of the galaxyHESS

Indirect detection: gamma rayUEDHooper and Wang (2003)

Dark Matter annihilates in the halo to positions , a place some particles which are detected by AMS on the ISS. an experiment

recipeDark matter density profile in the haloAMS

Comparison of pre-LHC SUSY searches DM searches are complementary to collider searches

When combined, entire cosmologically attractive region will be explored before LHC ( 2007 ) Pre-WMAPPost-WMAPLHC searchDM search

Collider study of dark matter Can study those regions at colliders2007Now Precise determination of new particle mass and couplingDetermine DM mass, relic densityLHCILC

Choose four representative points for detailed study Neutralino DM in mSUGRAFeng et. al. ILC cosmology working groupBaer et. al. ISAJETGondolo et. al. DarkSUSYBelanger et. al. MicroMEGA

Bulk region LCC1 (SPS1a)M0, m1/2, A0, tan = 100, 250, -100, 10 ( >o, m3/2>mLSP )light 10, 20, 1, sleptonWeiglein, Martyn et. al. (2004) Scan over 20 most relevant parameters

compute h2, weigh each point by Gaussian distribution for each observable

width of pdf h2

LCC1 Relic density determination: LCC1(preliminary) result: / = 2.2% ( h2 = 0.0026 )Battaglia (2005)

LCC2 Foucs point region: LCC2(preliminary) result: / = 2.4% ( h2 = 0.0029 )Battaglia (2005)M0, m1/2, A0, tan =3280, 300, 0, 10 ( >o, m3/2>mLSP )light neutralino/chargino LCC2

Coanniliation region: LCC3(preliminary) result: / = 7% ( h2 = 0.0084 )Battaglia (2005)M0, m1/2, A0, tan =210, 360, 0, 40 ( >o, m3/2>mLSP )m mstau LCC3

Synergy

Relic Density Indirect DetectionDirect Detection

Astrophysical and Cosmological InputsCollider Inputs

Weak-scale Parameters

DM AnnihilationDM-N Interaction

Alternative dark matter But the relic density argument strongly prefers weak interactions.All of the signals rely on DM having EW interactions.

Is this required?NO!

SWIMPSMsuperWIMP Feng, Rajaraman and Takayama (2003)104 s t 108 ssuperWIMP

e.g. Gravitino LSP LKK graviton

WIMP

neutral chargedWIMP superWIMP + SM particlesWIMP

superWIMP : an example SUSY caseWIMP superWIMP + SM particles

Gravitino Gravitino: superpartner of graviton

Obtain mass when SUSY is spontaneously broken mG F/mpl

Stable when it is LSP - candidate of Dark Matter~

Gravitino: warm dark matter mG mSUSY (GMSB) Moroi, Murayama and Yamaguchi, PLB303, 289 (1993)~

Gravitino cold dark matter thermalLSP v-1 (weak coupling)-2 WIMPsuperWIMPDMBolz, Brandenburg and Buchmuller,NPB 606, 518 (2001)Kawasaki, Kohri and Moroi, asrtro-ph/0402490, astro-ph/0408426Buchmuller, Bari, Plumacher, NPB665, 445 (2003)Kohri, Moroi and Yotsuyanagi, hep-ph/0

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